Back to Self-Quiz Index
Back to Psych Web Home Page

Self-Quiz on Cognition

Revised 4/4/2004. Welcome to the self-quiz on Memory. Read the question and click on an answer. You will jump to a correction or (if the answer is correct) a confirmation. No total score is provided for this quiz because it is meant to be browsed; you can scan the responses to wrong answers as well as right answers. If you run into problems or have a question, read the introductory paragraphs on the self-quiz index page.

  1. Historically, AI was distinguished from cognitive psychology in what way?
  2. To what does the term "constraint satisfaction" refer?
  3. What are "two types of mental imagery" pointed out by researchers?
  4. What is the lexical component of text processing?
  5. What do researchers identify as a consistent difference between the way good writers and poor writers revise a written work?
  6. In the pursuit rotor task, a subject must...
  7. Technically, a "steep learning curve" would be one in which...
  8. What happens in typical cognitive neuroscience research?
  9. What is "hill-climbing" in the context of the General Problem Solver (GPS) program?
  10. How does expertise relate to domain-specific knowledge?

End of multiple choice questions for Chapter on Cognition

This page is http://www.psywww.com/selfquiz/ch07mcq.htm

To the Psych Web Home Page
Top of this file


ANSWERS AND DISCUSSION SECTION

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

You picked...

AI used neuroscience

No...historically AI was not close to neuroscience. In fact, when it started out, AI (artificial intelligence) defined neuroscience as irrelevant. Neuroscience concerned "hardware" (they said) while AI was concerned with "software" or the logic of information processing. That is not quite so true in the 1990s; now researchers in AI and neuroscience often learn from each other.

back to questions

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

You picked...

AI did not care about how humans did something

Yes...originally, researchers in AI (artificial intelligence) concerned themselves exclusively with the performance of computers, not with the question of how humans might carry out the same task. Cognitive psychologists did the opposite, studying only how humans carried out thought processes. Nowadays the boundaries are blurred and many researchers have expertise in both fields. Both types of research can be categorized as "cognitive science."

back to questions

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

You picked...

AI was considered by many scientists as more subjective

No, artificial intelligence research is objective, in the sense that it involves public and shareable forms of evidence. AI "theories" are embodied in computer programs which can be analyzed and studied by other scientists.

back to questions

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

You picked...

AI was the more common approach in psychology departments

No, artificial intelligence is an outgrowth of computer science more than psychology. Few artificial intelligence researchers are headquartered in psychology departments, unless they combine AI with cognitive psychology..

back to questions

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

You picked...

AI was an older approach

No, cognitive psychology is older, arguably going back to the 1800s. Artificial intelligence grew out of the emergence of the computer as a new technology in the 1950s and 1960s.

back to questions

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

You picked...

the "law of continuity," computer style

No; the constraint satisfaction approach helps explain the gestalt law of continuity, but they are not equivalent.

back to questions

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

You picked...

finding the one solution which fits all the evidence

Yes. A constraint is literally a limitation, a factor which "rules something out." For each visual scene, the computer must locate one interpretation (in other words, make one assignment of meaning to the parts) which explains or "accounts for" all the sensory evidence. The computer arrives at this correct interpretation by ruling out all possibilities except one.

back to questions

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

You picked...

listing requirements before starting problem-solving

No... a list of requirements could function as a set of "constraints" on a problem solving process, but this is only one example of constraint satisfaction, not a definition of it.

back to questions

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

You picked...

an interpretation which meets expectations

This is not the best answer. An expectation might constrain ongoing cognitive activity. However, constraint satisfaction need not involve expectations. The visual scene analysis program, for example, is almost entirely "bottom-up" or data-driven so it does not involve "expectations."

back to questions

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

You picked...

a program which analyzes spatial relationships

No, constraint satisfaction might be used as a strategy or technique in such a program, but the two are not equivalent.

back to questions

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

You picked...

"higher" and "lower"

No, guess again...

back to questions

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

You picked...

"internal" and "external"

Hmmm. Would "internal" imagery be imagination, "external" imagery be hallucination? Nah...

back to questions

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

You picked...

right hemisphere and left hemisphere

No, contrary to stereotypes in popular media, imagery is not a specialization of the right hemisphere. Right parietal damage often causes difficulties in spatial reasoning (such as rotating shapes in imagination) but the ability to imagine pictures is often affected by left hemisphere damage. Visual perception in general involves areas on both sides of the brain.

back to questions

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

You picked...

"pictures" versus "space"

Yes...spatial processing (such as rotating figures tests) is evidently distinct from pictorial processing (such as imagining a picture). These two types of imagery can be "doubly dissociated" by brain injury (a person can lose one ability while remaining normal in the other ability) and they are shown by brain scans to involve different brain areas.

back to questions

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

You picked...

color versus black and white

No, there is another difference which is more fundamental (involving different brain areas).

back to questions

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

You picked...

so-called "word attack"

No, word attack (the "sounding out" of words) is termed phonetic processing.

back to questions

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

You picked...

orthographic processing

No, "orthographic" refers to the physical appearance of letters, such as their shapes. That is something different.

back to questions

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

You picked...

recognizing individual letters

No, the "lexicon" involves words, not individual letters.

back to questions

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

You picked...

accessing an internal dictionary

Yes...a "lexicon" is a dictionary, and "lexical processing" refers to our ability to retrieve the meaning of a word, when we read the word.

back to questions

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

You picked...

arriving at a meaning which fits all the evidence

No, that would be termed "comprehension." Lexical processing is a step on the way toward comprehension.

back to questions

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

You picked...

poor writers do not revise at all

No... This question refers to research comparing different groups of students, probably in English classes, who were working on papers. The "poor writers" did make some revisions.

back to questions

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

You picked...

good writers produce a "polished" first draft

No, this seldom happens in research or in real life.

back to questions

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

You picked...

good writers are more likely to move big chunks of a document to different places

Yes. Good writers are more likely to manipulate the overall structure of a piece of writing. Poor writers tend to correct typos and other small errors, but they typically do not examine or change their overall "plan of attack."

back to questions

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

You picked...

poor writers are more likely to construct an outline, then "stick to it"

No. They would probably benefit from this antique-but-still-current advice.

back to questions

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

You picked...

poor writers revise much more often, up to five times more frequently than good writers

No, poor writers actually revise less, in certain important ways...

back to questions

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

You picked...

watch hands in a mirror

No, that is the "mirror-tracing" task, which is another common way to measure motor learning.

back to questions

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

You picked...

keep a wand on a little metal dot

Yes. The "pursuit rotor" consists of a turntable with a metal dot on the platter. The subject being tested must keep a flexible metal wand on the dot. This is a way to measure motor coordination or motor learning.

back to questions

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

You picked...

shoot through a hole which turns

No, the "rotor" of a pursuit rotor apparatus lies flat, like a turntable...guess again...

back to questions

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

You picked...

judge whether a dot of light is moving or still, in a darkened room

No, that is a famous "test" but the pursuit rotor involves motor activity.

back to questions

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

You picked...

walk on a treadmill apparatus while aiming at a rotating target

No, the pursuit rotor is a tabletop apparatus...

back to questions

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

You picked...

no learning whatsoever has occurred

No, a "learning curve" is a graph showing improvement in learning over time, so a steep learning curve would indicate something about the pattern of improvement.

back to questions

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

You picked...

learning has been fast

Yes. Contrary to the usual (mistaken) use of this phrase, a "steep" learning curve--one which rises rapidly--would indicate rapid learning. Probably the reason people misuse the phrase "steep learning curve" is that they are influenced by the word "steep," so they think it means difficulty learning, like the difficulty walking up a steep hill.

back to questions

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

You picked...

learning has been slow

No, if learning is slow the "learning curve" should rise only slowly.

back to questions

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

You picked...

learning has been steady, until levelling off

No, the word "steep" implies a rapid rise, not a steady slope.

back to questions

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

You picked...

massive forgetting has occurred

No, a steep learning curve is not the same thing as a rapidly falling "forgetting curve."

back to questions

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

You picked...

subjects ingest some sort of chemical

No, although some forms of brain scanning require people to inhale or ingest chemicals, this is not required by most cognitive neuroscience research (or by brain scanning techniques such as MRI and MEG).

back to questions

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

You picked...

computers model human processes in simulations

No, that would be more typical of a cognitive psychologist with interests in computer simulations. The term neuroscience implies a biological emphasis.

back to questions

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

You picked...

subjects are asked to keep diaries or otherwise record subjective events over the long term

No, cognitive neuroscience research must have something to do with the thought process (cognition) and the study of the nervous system (neuroscience).

back to questions

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

You picked...

brain scans show which areas are active during a cognitive task

Yes...this is a common type of research in the 1990s. It combines the interests of cognitive psychologists (who are interested in how people think and process information) with the interests and research tools of neuroscience (such as brain scanning).

back to questions

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

You picked...

animals such as rats are used as "model systems" to represent humans

No, that is a type of research which has been done for several decades (for example, studying epilepsy in dogs or Parkinson's Disease in rats) but it would not usually be categorized as "cognitive," just as neuroscience.

back to questions

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

You picked...

treating each sub-problem as a distinct goal

No, that is "sub-goaling," the main emphasis of the SOAR program, not hill-climbing, the emphasis of the GPS program.

back to questions

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

You picked...

choosing the more difficult path

No, hill-climbing does not involve an assessment of path difficulty (which is actually one of its weaknesses...)

back to questions

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

You picked...

"going against the grain" or being stubborn

No, hill-climbing as the term is used here does not necessarily imply difficulty, just consistent pursuit of a goal.

back to questions

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

You picked...

taking steps toward a goal

Yes. The metaphor of "hill-climbing" as used in the General Problem Solver program refers to a tactic of selecting whatever step or move will advance the program toward its goal, similar to the tactic of climbing a hill by always stepping in the direction of the summit.

back to questions

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

You picked...

basically the same thing as constraint satisfaction

No, they are not the "same thing." You might, however, argue that hill-climbing is a particular type of constraint satisfaction: "pick the action which meets the constraint: of advancing you toward your goal."

back to questions

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

You picked...

experts are distinguished by lots of domain-specific knowledge

Yes. Experts are distinguished by lots of knowledge relating to a particular (often quite limited) domain of knowledge. This is called "domain-specific knowledge." Examples would be knowledge of how to play chess, or how to fix car engines.

back to questions

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

You picked...

experts have general problem solving abilities

No, expertise is usually defined by highly specific knowledge (although you could certain argue that they need some general problem-solving abilities, too.)

back to questions

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

You picked...

experts often fail because they are too specialized

No, experts must be specialized in order to be considered experts.

back to questions

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

You picked...

the expertise provides macrostructure, the domain-specific knowledge provides the infrastructure

Infrastructure? That word is used mostly to refer to highways and bridges, these days (the "infrastructure" of the economy). Macrostructure is a word used in cognitive psychology to refer to large-scale organization, for example, the outline of a term paper, so it does not specifically relate to expertise.

back to questions

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

You picked...

the two are opposites, one being "general," the other being "particular"

No, experts must deal with "particulars," and domain-specific knowledge also concerns the "particulars" of a domain or area of knowledge.

back to questions

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 



Back to Psych Web Home Page ...or.... Top of this file.

Don't see what you need? Psych Web has over 1,000 pages, so it may be elsewhere on the site. Do a site-specific Google search using the box below.

Custom Search